About 84,000 people in the U.S. are living with pancreatic cancer, based on a 2018 estimate. In the U.S., only about 10% of patients live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, and about 48,000 patients were predicted to die of pancreatic cancer in 2021. Pancreatic cancer cases may be treatable with surgery when the cancer is diagnosed early, chemotherapy and/or radiation, or certain targeted therapies, but therapies that reliably improve survival have been elusive.
Myelofibrosis is a rare cancer of the bone marrow marked by the buildup of scar tissue. As myelofibrosis persists, it can prevent the bone marrow from producing enough blood cells, which can cause anemia that can lead to weakness or fatigue; it can also reduce blood-clotting abilities. Myelofibrosis falls under the category of myelodysplastic syndromes, and its prevalence is uncertain but estimated to fall at about 10,000 cases in the U.S. Patients may need blood transfusions, surgery to remove the spleen, bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, and/or radiation or other treatments; however, effective and safe targeted therapies are limited.
In infants and young children, neuroblastoma is a cancer that can occur in the nerve cells in the abdomen, neck, chest, or spinal cord. About 700 to 800 cases are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. Symptoms are highly variable but may include pain, high blood pressure, diarrhea, fever, or trouble breathing. Although a number of therapeutic interventions are available, the varied nature of the disease contributes to equally variable prognoses for these young patients.
The most common type of skin cancer, melanoma affected about 1.3 million Americans as of 2018, and rates are rising each year. Although melanoma is highly survivable in general, metastatic, or advanced melanomas can carry significant risk, and 7,650 people are expected to die of melanoma in the U.S. in 2022. Although a handful of targeted therapies for melanoma are in development, none are yet approved for commercial use in patients.
Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare, often aggressive type of cancer that can be found in the blood (leukemia), lymph nodes (lymphoma), or other areas of the body. It is primarily caused by infection with a virus called human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In the U.S., ATLL occurs in approximately 0.05 per 100,000 people, although prevalence is higher in areas of the world where HTLV-1 is more common. Patients may experience swelling of the lymph nodes, liver, or spleen.
Despite the development of several targeted therapies, ATLL the prognosis for patients with ATLL remains poor, and few survive more than 5 years postdiagnosis
Salivary Gland Carcinoma
Salivary gland carcinomas (SCGs) are a rare subset of head and neck cancer, affecting fewer than 10,000 people annually in the U.S. Patients may experience pain in the areas of the head and/or neck where the salivary glands are present or may have trouble swallowing, among other symptoms. SGCs can be especially challenging to treat due to their numerous subtypes which respond differently to therapy. Current treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation, but broadly successful targeted therapies are not yet available.