To learn more about the role of GSK-3β in cancer, please see these resources.


Molecular Pathways: Revisiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β as a Target for the Treatment of Cancer
Clinical Cancer Research, 2017; DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2240; Amy Walz, Andrey Ugolkov, Sunandana Chandra, Alan Kozikowski, Benedito A. Carneiro, Thomas V. ,O’Halloran, Francis J. Giles, Daniel D. Billadeau, and Andrew P. Mazar

Targeting GSK-3: a promising approach for cancer therapy?
Future Oncology, 2006; 2(1):91-100; Ougolkov A, Billadeau DD.


Combination treatment with the GSK-3 inhibitor 9-ING-41 and CCNU cures orthotopic chemoresistant glioblastoma in patient-derived xenograft models
Translational Oncology; 2017 Aug; 10(4):669-678; Andrey Ugolkov, Wenan Qiang, Gennadiy Bondarenko, Daniel Procissi, Irina Gaisina, C. David James, James Chandler, Alan Kozikowski, HendraGunosewoyo, Thomas O’Halloran, Jeffry Raizer and Andrew P. Mazar

Potential therapeutic effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition against human glioblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:887-897; Miyashita K, Kawakami K, Nakada M, Mai W, Shakoori A, Fujisawa H, Hayashi Y, Hamada J, Minamoto T.

GSK3β regulates differentiation and growth arrest in glioblastoma
PLoS One 2009;4(10):e7443; Korur S, Huber RM, Sivasankaran B, Petrich M, Morin P Jr, Hemmings BA, Merlo A, Lino MM.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition induces glioma cell death through c-MYC, nuclear factor-κB, and glucose regulation.
Cancer Res 2008; 68(16):6643-6651; Kotliarova S, Pastorino S, Kovell LC, Kotliarov Y, Song H, Zhang W, Bailey R, Maric D, Zenklusen JC, Lee J, Fine HA.

Pancreatic Cancer

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β ablation limits pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia
Journal of Pathology; 2017 Sep; 243(1):65-77; Li Ding, Geou-Yarh Liou, Daniel M Schmitt, Peter Storz, Jin-San Zhang and Daniel D Billadeau

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β participates in nuclear factor kappaB-mediated gene transcription and cell survival in pancreatic cancer cells.
Cancer Res, 2005; 65:2076-2081; Ougolkov A, Fernandez-Zapico M, Savoy D, Urrutia R, Billadeau D.

Aberrant nuclear accumulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in human pancreatic cancer: association with kinase activity and tumor dedifferentiation.
Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12:5074-5081; Ougolkov A, Fernandez-Zapico M, Bilim V, Smyrk T, Chari S, Billadeau D.

Breast cancer

GSK-3 inhibition overcomes chemoresistance in human breast cancer
Cancer Letters, 2016; 380:384–392; Andrey Ugolkov, Irina Gaisina, Jin-San Zhang, Daniel D. Billadeau, Kevin White, Alan Kozikowski, Sarika Jain, Massimo Cristofanilli, Francis Giles, Thomas O’Halloran, Vincent L. Cryns, Andrew P. Mazar

Ovarian cancer

Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitors induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and inhibit in-vivo tumor growth.
Anticancer Drugs 2011; 22:978-985; Hilliard T, Gaisina I, Muehlbauer A, Gaisin A, Gallier F, Burdette J.


Glycogen synthase kinase 3 in MLL leukaemia maintenance and targeted therapy.
Nature 2008; 455(7217):1205-1209; Wang Z, Smith KS, Murphy M, Piloto O, Somervaille T, Cleary M.

Renal Cancer

Glycogen synthase kinase-3: a new therapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer 2009; 101:2005-2014; Bilim V, Ougolkov A, Yuuki K, Naito S, Kawazoe H, Muto A, Oya M, Billadeau D, Motoyama T, Tomita Y.

Inhibition of GSK-3 induces differentiation and impaired glucose metabolism in renal cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther 2014; 13(2):285-296; Pal K, Ying C, Gaisina IN., Bhattacharya S, Dutta SK, Wang E, Gunosewoyo H, Kozikowski AP, Billadeau DD, Mukhopadhyay D.

Bladder Cancer

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β: a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in human bladder cancer.
Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16(21):5124-5132; Naito S, Bilim V, Yuuki K, Ugolkov A, Motoyama T, Nagaoka A, Kato T, Tomita Y.

Colon Cancer

Deregulated GSK3β activity in colorectal cancer: its association with tumor cell survival and proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 334:1365-1373; Ougolkov A, Shakoori A, Zhang B, Modarressi M, Billadeau D, Mai M, Takahashi Y, Minamoto T.

Thyroid Cancer

Prostate cancer

Suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity reduces tumor growth of prostate cancer in vivo.
Prostate 2011; 71:835-845; Zhu Q, Yang J, Han S, Liu J, Holzbeierlein J, Thrashe, J, Li B.